Glossary

Specific terms from our business are explained here:

2K
Abbreviation for resolutions of image and video, e.g. 2048 x 1536 and 2048 x 1556 pixels.

Abbreviation for resolutions of image and video, e.g. 2048 x 1536 and 2048 x 1556 pixels. This resolution is recognized as the minimum resolution that is suitable for cinema presentations. In order to obtain other aspect ratios or to be compatible with technologies like HD-SDI, further formats like 2048 x 1080 and 2048 x 858 are common. As 2K is used for film production mainly, the color coding is mostly RGB 4:4:4, which gives a better quality than YUV 4:2:2.

4:2:2/:4
This is a term commonly used for a component digital video format.

This is a term commonly used for a component digital video format. It represents a certain ratio of sampling frequencies used to digitize color difference components (Y, R-Y, B-Y) of a video signal and the luminance. 4:2:2 describes that for every four samples of Y, there are two samples each of B-Y and R-Y, increasing chrominance bandwidth in relation to luminance compared to 4:1:1 sampling.

4:2:2:4 is identical to 4:2:2 with a further channel for key channel that is sampled four times for every four samples of the luminance channel. See also Key channel.

4:4:4/:4
Quite similar to 4:2:2 with one exception: luminance and chrominance are sampled with the same rate.

Quite similar to 4:2:2 with one exception: luminance and chrominance are sampled with the same rate. 4:4:4 is often used with RGB color coding, but YUV color coding in conjunction with 4:4:4 sampling is also common. 4:4:4:4 is similar to 4:2:2:4. Here as well, for every four luminance samples, the color and key channels are also sampled four times. See also Key channel.

4K
Abbreviation for an image and video resolution from 3840 x 2160 to 4096 x 3112. This resolution is recognized to be of the same quality like a high-quality cinema presentation.

Abbreviation for an image and video resolution from 3840 x 2160 to 4096 x 3112. This resolution is recognized to be of the same quality like a high-quality cinema presentation. To obtain other aspect ratios or to be compatible with technologies like HD-SDI or DVI, further formats like 4096 x 2160 and 4096 x 1714 are common. The 4K resolution is higher than the one of a HDTV signal. As 4K is used for film production mainly the color coding is mostly RGB 4:4:4 which gives a better quality than YUV 4:2:2.

A/V
Abbreviation for Audio/Video (signal).

Abbreviation for Audio/Video (signal).

AES/EBU
AES/EBU is a standardized digital audio format that provides audio without data reduction.

AES/EBU is a standardized digital audio format that provides audio without data reduction. The catch-word for AES/EBU is that it is digital and not analog. It is transmitted either via a symmetrical (balanced) cable connection with XLR connectors or embedded in video. The consumer variant of AES/EBU is the S/P-DIF format. See also AIV and Embedded.

AIF/AIFF
Abbreviation for 'Audio Interchange (File) Format'.

Abbreviation for 'Audio Interchange (File) Format'. Platform-independent file format for digital audio signals that can be used for audio clips. Capable of storing multiple mono or stereo channels. See also Audio clip.

AIV
Abbreviation for 'audio in video'.

Abbreviation for 'audio in video'. Digital audio can be transmitted either via a separate connection (AES/EBU) or embedded in the video signal, meaning that audio is sent over the same data connection as the video signal. See also AES/EBU and Embedded.

Alpha channel
Additional channel that saves the relative transparency value additionally to the color information.

The alpha channel is an additional channel that saves the relative transparency value additionally to the color information. Thanks to the Alpha values the layering of media objects on top of each other are facilitated. In the common four digit digital sampling structure like 4:2:2:4 the alpha channel is represented by the last digit.

API
Abbreviation for application program interface.

Abbreviation for application program interface. Using this source code interface a programmer can make requests of the operating system or another application.

Array
When storing information on multiple devices of data storage, it is defined as an array.
  • When storing information on multiple devices of data storage, it is defined as an array.
  • In computer programming languages, a group of objects with the same attributes that can be addressed individually are defined as an array.
  • The arrangement of memory cells in random access memory is defined as an array.
Aspect Ratio
The ratio defines a screen’s width to its height.

The ratio defines a screen’s width to its height. Different aspect ratios exist: In NTSC and PAL video, the present standard is 4:3 (or: 35mm aspect ratio for television is 1.33:1). In widescreen video, it is typically 16:9 (it is either 1.85:1 -flat- or 2.35:1 -anamorphic-).

ATA
Advanced Technology Attachment. See IDE.

Advanced Technology Attachment. See IDE.

Audio clip
In a non-linear editing environment a clip indicates data of either video or audio that has been clipped out (copied) from a larger environment such as a reel or a video tape.

In a non-linear editing environment a clip indicates data of either video or audio that has been clipped out (copied) from a larger environment such as a reel or a video tape. So in the end an audio clip is a snippet of audio in an audio file that can be used in an editing software such as CLIPSTER®.

Autoconforming
In general autoconforming is the process where an offline-edited edit decision list (EDL) or cut list is used to reproduce the high-quality content of video and audio with the original source material.

In general autoconforming is the process where an offline-edited edit decision list (EDL) or cut list is used to reproduce the high-quality content of video and audio with the original source material. With regard to CLIPSTER® it means the build-up of a timeline in the CLIPSTER®/Pronto Edit Tool from a capture list, EDL or cut list. The clips used for the autoconforming had to be recorded earlier from an external player or you can use already available clips on the hard disk array. See also Conforming and Online-conforming.

 

Autodetection
Autodetection is a function of the CLIPSTER®/Pronto video systems that allows the operator to automatically detect and set the video format and raster of the incoming video signal, for example, for a capturing.

Autodetection is a function of the CLIPSTER®/Pronto video systems that allows the operator to automatically detect and set the video format and raster of the incoming video signal, for example, for a capturing. It is a handy feature because to record (capture) video correctly the set and configured input video settings in our software have to be of the same raster and format as the incoming video signal.

Autoscaling
Scaling generally indicates a change of the resolution of images, i.e. the images are made larger or smaller.

Scaling generally indicates a change of the resolution of images, i.e. the images are made larger or smaller. Autoscaling is a setting of the CLIPSTER® video system that enables an automatic scaling and resizing of the original video material. If the resolution of the original material differs from the configured raster, it will be scaled either up or down to its maximum allowable width and/or height according to the selected video format. The autoscaling setting makes sure that no image information gets lost, i.e. the images will not be cropped nor will they be to small for the selected video format. See also Video format.

Backup
Copying files or databases so that they will be preserved.

Copying files or databases so that they will be preserved.

Bandwith
Data throughput, meaning the amount of data sent.

Data throughput, meaning the amount of data sent. The term describes the amount of information that can be transmitted over a wire, line or method of linking communication devices. Therefore, it defines the range of transmission frequencies a network can use. The greater the bandwidth is, the larger is the amount of information that can be transferred over that network.

Batch capturing
Batch capturing is a function of non-linear editing systems to automatically digitize video and audio data.

Batch capturing is a function of non-linear editing systems to automatically digitize video and audio data. A list of original scenes (the batch) is used to capture (record) video and audio data from an external player (e.g. a VTR). The CLIPSTER®/Pronto I/O Tool also provides this feature and you can use either a proprietary capture list or EDLs and cut lists from other systems to create a batch. Then the Batch record mode is used where you can perform several different record operations from an externally connected player in one step.

Bin
On non-linear editing systems the bin is an organization tool for one or more film scenes.

On non-linear editing systems the bin is an organization tool for one or more film scenes. In the CLIPSTER®/Pronto software it is the library and management tool for video and audio clips that should be assembled on a timeline.

Bit depth
The bit depth is an indication of the color depth that a pixel in a digital image may have.

The bit depth is an indication of the color depth that a pixel in a digital image may have. For example, when the image is available in 8 bit, each pixel in the image will provide one of 256 colors (28); when the image is in 10 bit, up to 1024 colors (210) are available.

BMP
Abbreviation for 'bitmap', i.e. the Windows® bitmap format.

Abbreviation for 'bitmap', i.e. the Windows® bitmap format. An image file format that can be used for video clips. See also Video clip.

BNC
Abbreviation for 'Bayonet Neill Concelman'.

Abbreviation for 'Bayonet Neill Concelman'. Coaxial connection/connector with a bayonet locking mechanism to in- or output analog or digital video signals. Can be used for other signals such as audio or LTC as well.

Breakout box
A box to be connected to a computer system to provide further connections.

A box to be connected to a computer system to provide further connections. In a digital video environment a breakout box may provide further connections for the video system, for example, to in- or output audio or video. We mainly offer breakout boxes for ourr OEM products because the computer systems of OEM customers may not provide enough space at their rear to house all connection possibilities of our OEM product (video board). Another possibility to receive more connectors are breakout cables (see Breakout cable).

Breakout cable
At a hardware (e.g. a video system) in- and output connections that are usually distributed over several standardized connectors can be combined and offered via a single connector for the sake of space.

At a hardware (e.g. a video system) in- and output connections that are usually distributed over several standardized connectors can be combined and offered via a single connector for the sake of space. Then you may either connect a breakout box or a breakout cable to the connector to receive the standardized plugs again. A breakout cable usually provides at one end one and at the other several connectors in order to split up the single connection to several individual ones. See also Breakout box.

 

Browsing Tools
A browsing tool is, for instance, a standard file manager such as 'My Computer' or the Windows Explorer on the Windows operating system.

A browsing tool is, for instance, a standard file manager such as 'My Computer' or the Windows Explorer on the Windows operating system. With it you can browse and access the contents of your hard disk(s) or other storage medias (e.g. CD-ROMs). For the fields of digital video and Digital Intermediates we also provide a browsing tool with the name 'Spycer®'. See Spycer®.

 

Burn-in
To burn-in means to superimpose certain information on an image.

To burn-in means to superimpose certain information on an image. Due to the fact that these are provided at the output of one of our video systems, they are in a way 'burned' into the sent out image. With such a feature you can provide each image with individual information such as timecode, frame or keycode data or comments.

C Library
The C library comes with aSDK (software development kit).

The C library comes with a SDK (software development kit). It is a set of header files used to access our video boards in a computer application. The name of this set comes from the programming language C which is the native language for our SDK.

Cache
A cache is an especially fast memory.

A cache is an especially fast memory. It is a collection of duplicated data values stored in a memory.

Capture
Process of feeding media material from outside sources into a computer.

Process of feeding media material (video and audio) from outside sources into a computer. When capturing media from an outside source it requires special hardware, the video capture card. Special software is needed too, when capturing video of what is displayed on the computer screen.

CE
CE is the abbreviation for Conformité Européenne.

CE is the abbreviation for Conformité Européenne (European health & safety product label). The certificate or the CE mark is placed on products to signify that they conform with European Union regulations.

Centaurus
Centaurus® is the industry standard for high-end uncompressed video I/O hardware.

Centaurus® is the industry standard for high-end uncompressed video I/O hardware. Based on PCI-X bus architecture our video I/O board combines the technology of our SDStationOEM and HDStationOEM. Centaurus® is equipped with RS.422 remote control, wordclock, GPI interface, and a real-time hardware mixer. The board is ideal for compositing, title generation, virtual studio, color correction, and simple video I/O. Its successor, Centaurus II, will be on the market in late 2006 and is then available in a PCI-X 133 and PCI Express version.

CG
Abbreviation for 'computer graphics'. Usually it stands for images either partially or completely created at a computer workstation.

Abbreviation for 'computer graphics'. Usually it stands for images either partially or completely created at a computer workstation. However, in the field of digital video CG-matrices are used to color convert images from the YUV color space (the color space of television signals) to the RGB color space (the color space used on computers) and vice versa.

Chroma
Also called Chrominance.

Also called Chrominance. It describes the color portion of a video signal, i.e. information about hue and saturation. 

Chromakeying / Chromakeyer
Overlaying one video signal over another is defined as chromakeying.

Overlaying one video signal over another is defined as chromakeying. The areas of overlay must be defined by a specific range of color, or chrominance, depending on the foreground signal. The chrominance must have sufficient bandwidth or resolution. Chromakeying is also called blue screen or green screen, depending on the color being replaced.

Cineon
This is a file format that was specifically designed to represent scanned film images.

This is a file format that was specifically designed to represent scanned film images.

Client
A computer system that wants to access a service – sometimes a remote one – on another computer is called a client.

A computer system that wants to access a service – sometimes a remote one – on another computer is called a client. Typically this happens within a network.

Client-Server Architecture
Network structure which separates server applications from client applications.

Network structure which separates server applications from client applications. A central server manages all data for different clients and provides them with the required data. The system’s scalability depends on the server performance and the expandability of its hardware resources.

 

CLIPSTER®
Our turnkey solution. It is a one-stop Digital Intermediate solution.

CLIPSTER® is one of our turnkey solutions. It is a one-stop Digital Intermediate solution for conforming and finishing uncompressed SD/HD/2K/4K data in any workflow. Moreover, this DI workstation carries out real-time effects, enables multi-resolution and is an open platform. CLIPSTER® offers stunning hardware power and innovative software for unrivaled flexibility and can be used in any video or film post production environment. The high performance is to be seen in its real-time effects with up to 2 x 2K RGB 12 bit, its real-time playback of 4K RGB 10 bit DPX file sequences and its support of multiple video formats with real-time converting. Additionally, CLIPSTER® can handle real uncompressed video up to 4K RGB 16bit and runs real-time effects in 16 bit, with original native content being used for real-time processing. CLIPSTER®; is an open platform: the Windows® XP workstation captures directly to NTFS and it possesses real-time support of graphic file sequences like DPX, TIFF, Cineon®, TGA, BMP, etc. Of course, an OpenFX plug-in interface is part of CLIPSTER® as well.

 

CMS
A Content Management System is a software that helps storing content and tracking changes made by users.

A Content Management System is a software that helps storing content and tracking changes made by users. It supports the organization of content via a database.

Color correction
Process of fixing the color in a clip.

Process of fixing the color in a clip. It adjusts picture color, hue, saturation, etc. on either film or video.

Color Correction Panel
In the digital post production process often a special software in combination with a hardware panel is used to color correct images of video sequences.

In the digital post production process often a special software in combination with a hardware panel is used to color correct images of video sequences. Most of these panels provide three trackballs (one for each color component (RGB)) as well as other functions that facilitate the color correction process. See also Trackball.

Color space
This term describes the color range between specified references. Normally, references in television are quoted in the following way: RGB, Y, R-Y, B-Y, YIQ, YUV and Hue Saturation and Luminance (HSL), and XYZ.

This term describes the color range between specified references. Normally, references in television are quoted in the following way: RGB, Y, R-Y, B-Y, YIQ, YUV and Hue Saturation and Luminance (HSL), and XYZ. Common for these color spaces is that three values are used to represent a color. In print, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK) are used. It is possible to convert images between these color spaces, but due to the accuracy of processing involved care is required. When operating across the media – print, film, TV, as well as between computers and TV equipment – conversions in color space are needed.

Component
Each color of an RGB or YCbCr signal is transmitted via an individual cable.

Each color of an RGB or YCbCr signal is transmitted via an individual cable. This would be called a component color signal in opposed to a composite signal, where the three components are transmitted via one cable.

Composite video
A single signal existing of active video, horizontal and vertical sync, horizontal and vertical blanking, and color burst.

A composite video is a single signal existing of active video, horizontal and vertical sync, horizontal and vertical blanking, and color burst. Examples of composite signals are NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

Compositing
Simultaneous multi-layering and design for moving images.

Simultaneous multi-layering and design for moving images. Modern designs often use different techniques in combination, such as retouching, rotoscoping, painting, keying/matting, digital effects and color correction as well as multi-layering in order to create complex animations and opticals in promotions, title sequences, commercials as well as in program content. Besides the creative element there are other important applications for compositing equipment such as image repair, glass painting and wire removal - especially in motion pictures. The quality of the finished work, and therefore the equipment, can be crucial. This is especially true where seamless results are demanded. For example, adding a foreground convincingly over a background - placing an actor into a scene - without any telltale blue edges or other signs that the scene is composed.

Compressed
In order to save storage space or transmission time, the sizes of data are reduced.

See uncompressed and decompression

In order to save storage space or transmission time, the sizes of data are reduced, i.e. compressed.The size of digital data files can be reduced by removing redundant information (loss-less) or by removing non-critical data (lossy). Image files are analyzed looking for redundancy and repetition; then unnecessary data is discarded. Originally, these techniques were developed for digital transmission but have been adopted as a means of handling digital video and reducing the storage demands for digital VTRs.

Conforming
Prepare a complete version of your project for viewing or playing out by conforming it.

Prepare a complete version of your project for viewing or playing out by conforming it. The conformed version might either be an intermediate working version or the final cut.

Content Management System (CMS)
A CMS will help its users administrating large amounts of content.

A CMS is a content management system. When using a large body of documents or multimedia or image resources a CMS will help its users administrating this kind of content.

Cropping
A rectangular cutting of image edges. By cropping you remove a part of your image, for example, to receive a letterbox effect (black borders at the top and bottom).

A rectangular cutting of image edges. By cropping you remove a part of your image, for example, to receive a letterbox effect (black borders at the top and bottom). Opposed to zoom and pan where you can create a similar effect, the remaining image is normally not scaled back to the size of the video format but remains in its original size.

CRT
Abbreviation for 'cathode ray tube'. Used in monitors and television sets to show images on a screen.

Abbreviation for 'cathode ray tube'. Used in monitors and television sets to show images on a screen. The current of the video signal is used to control electron rays generated by a cathode and directed onto a phosphorescing plane in a vacuumed tube. Wherever the electrons hit the phosphorescing plane they illuminate a dot on the plane in the brightness of the electron ray’s strength. The image dots (i.e. electron rays) are guided by electromagnetic fields from the left to the right and line by line. Thus an image is created on a screen.

Cursor
The vertical bar that represents an exact point in an active (text) object.

The vertical bar that represents an exact point in an active (text) object.

Cut
Instant change between two sources of video, also called 'hard cut'.

Instant change between two sources of video, also called 'hard cut'. In non-linear editing you usually have a cut between two video clips. However, you can also create cuts or 'cutting points' by simply dividing a video clip at a certain position.

Cut list
A cut list is usually provided as a file and used to determine a sequence of video and audio clips.

A cut list is usually provided as a file and used to determine a sequence of video and audio clips. It describes a timeline with video and audio clips via timecode data of succeeding in- and outpoints. Cut lists may also contain information about transitions between clips (hard cut or wipe) and exist in various different, not standardized formats. See also EDL and Timeline.

CVBS
See composite video.

See composite video.

Dailies
Also: Rushes. Footage that is shot in a day; called 'rushes' in England.

Also: Rushes. Footage that is shot in a day; called 'rushes' in England.

DAS
Direct Attached Storage.

Direct Attached Storage. A storage unit directly attached to the device recording the data.

DDR
Systems that record video or audio programs on one or more hard drives.

Systems that record video or audio programs on one or more hard drives. They are mostly used in broadcast or radio broadcasting when editing or recording is required. The benefit of these systems: they offer immediate access to the material that was recorded before, without requiring pre-roll/post-roll or expensive maintenance of tape heads.

Decompression
When expanding a compressed file back into its original form it is uncompressed (or decompressed)
Defragmentation
Storing and deleting data on a storage medium such as a hard disk will cause in time a fragmentation of data on the storage.

Storing and deleting data on a storage medium such as a hard disk will cause in time a fragmentation of data on the storage. Then the information is no longer stored as a large block in one place but scattered all over the storage. Though one will hardly experience this as a problem when working with a computer normally, when dealing with digital video it is of special importance: Then the data on the storage should be optimally aligned to be more suited for real-time operations. To achieve this you have to apply a defragmentation at regular intervals to the storage which will physically align the data properly on the storage. For this we developed a special defragmenter that even observes video clips consisting of individual image files: The files belonging to clips will be aligned in blocks, thus truly facilitating real-time processes. See also Drop / Dropped frames .

DI
Abbreviation for Digital Intermediate

Abbreviation for Digital Intermediate. DI is the process of digitizing a film (e.g. by color correction, inserting transitions, conversioning, conforming, etc.) before it is distributed in movie theaters.   

digital disk recorder
Systems that record video or audio programs on one or more hard drives.

Systems that record video or audio programs on one or more hard drives. They are mostly used in broadcast or radio broadcasting when editing or recording is required. The benefit of these systems: they offer immediate access to the material that was recorded before, without requiring pre-roll/post-roll or expensive maintenance of tape heads.

 

DirectShow
The Microsoft® DirectShow® application programming interface (API) is an architecture for streaming media on Windows®.

The Microsoft® DirectShow® application programming interface (API) is an architecture for streaming media on Windows®. With DirectShow a software developer can implement all kinds of video and audio play-out and capture solutions in a software application. Various applications such as Windows Media Player use DirectShow already to display the video or audio content of files.

Dissolve
A certain style of transition

A certain style of transition: one clip blends into the next. Most common are dissolve rates from a half-second to two seconds.

DPX
Abbreviation for 'Digital Picture Exchange'.

Abbreviation for 'Digital Picture Exchange'. This file format can be found in digital film work and is considered an ANSI/SMPTE 268M standard. DPX files can store image data and additional metadata in their file headers.

Driver
A program interacting with a special kind of software or particular device

A program interacting with a special kind of software or particular device. The driver has special knowledge of the device or particular software interface that programs using the driver do not have.

Drop
Frames/image files that cannot be read from or written to a storage during a real-time operation have to be dropped.

Frames/image files that cannot be read from or written to a storage during a real-time operation have to be dropped, i.e. they will be omitted during a play-out or record. A drop can be caused by all kinds of reasons, for example, a fragmented video storage, where data is physically scattered over the hard disk so that it takes too long to read it in time. See also Defragmentation.

Dropped frames
Frames/image files that cannot be read from or written to a storage during a real-time operation have to be dropped.

Frames/image files that cannot be read from or written to a storage during a real-time operation have to be dropped, i.e. they will be omitted during a play-out or record. A drop can be caused by all kinds of reasons, for example, a fragmented video storage, where data is physically scattered over the hard disk so that it takes too long to read it in time. See also Defragmentation.

Dual link
SDTV and HDTV in YUV 4:2:2 can be transmitted via a single BNC connector (single link).

SDTV and HDTV in YUV 4:2:2 can be transmitted via a single BNC connector (single link). However, other video formats (e.g. RGB transmissions) exceed the data rate provided by a single BNC connector. For such a video signal two BNCs for a parallel (HD-)SDI connection are required, which is called a dual-link connection. See also BNC, HD-SDI, HSDL, SDI and Single link.

DVI
Abbreviation for Digital Visual Interface

DVI is the abbreviation for Digital Visual Interface. It is a video standard interface that will maximize the visual quality of digital display devices (e.g. computer displays, LCD panels, digital projectors and more). It is especially suited for uncompressed digital video data. 

DVS-SAN
DVS-SAN is a high-performance central storage system for uncompressed video and digital film.

DVS-SAN is a high-performance central storage system for uncompressed video and digital film. It has been designed for use in the film and HD post production environment, where large amounts of data must be accessed in real time by multiple workstations. DVS-SAN meets the special demands of digital intermediate work and HD projects requiring ultrahigh data rates and fast access times. With DVS-SAN, several workstations can access the same data, concurrently and in real time, eliminating the need for copying and exporting. The system is upward-scalable to hundreds of terabytes and so offers enough storage capacity for several film projects.

Editing
Creative process in the film world

Creative process in the film world. Applying effects, re-arranging the order of clips, color correcting, etc. Editing means assembling a film by combining sound and images from various master sources. Carried out by editors.

EDL
Edit Decision List, a file that describes how video or film sequences shall be assembled.

Edit Decision List, a file that describes how video or film sequences shall be assembled. In general it contains four columns with timecode information. Two columns define the source position and two the destination position of the clip. EDLs can contain additional information about special effects and others.

EE
The live signal.

The live signal. An incoming video signal (input signal) is immediately routed to the output.

Effect
To add an image or sound to an original piece of film data that was not there before

To add an image or sound to an original piece of film data that was not there before. It will make the original piece more interesting. Process is mostly carried out electronically.

Embedded
Embedded usually stands for embedded audio in video (AIV).

Embedded usually stands for embedded audio in video (AIV). Via SDI or HD-SDI up to 16 channels of audio (AES/EBU) can be transmitted. While this is the most easiest way to transmit audio together with video, a working on audio alone is normally not possible with this connection. See also AES/EBU and AIV.

Ethernet
Ethernet is a network technology for data transmission.

Ethernet is a network technology for data transmission. A star-topology with twisted pair wiring is the most popular form. Common data rates are 10 Mbit/s (Ethernet, 10 Base-T), 100 Mbit/s (Fast Ethernet,100 Base-T), 1000 Mbit/s (Gigabit Ethernet, 1000 Base-T) and 10,000 Mbit/s (10 Gigabit Ethernet).

Fade
Different kinds of transitions, e.g. cross-fade.

Different kinds of transitions, e.g. cross-fade. Fade-in: A transition from a blank screen to an image. A fade-out is also called fade to black. This describes the process of a transition from an image to a blank (usually black) screen.

Fail-over
Automatically switchover to a backup or redundant system with equal characteristics.

If a failure or abnormal termination of the server, active system or network occurs, it will automatically switch over to a backup or redundant system with equal characteristics. Optimally no data loss will occur thanks to fail-over.

FC-drives
See Fibre Channel.These drives use the copper version of the Fibre Channel interface with a SCSI protocol.

See Fibre Channel. These drives use the copper version of the Fibre Channel interface with a SCSI protocol. The maximum data rate is 4 Gbps.

FCC
A certificate with the abbreviation for Frame Count Cuing.

A certificate with the abbreviation for Frame Count Cuing. Describes the process of tracking scene changes within an element, e.g. a clip.

Fibre Channel
A Fibre Channel is a universal, high-speed data link that can handle up to 4 Gb/s on a fibre optic cable.

A Fibre Channel is a universal, high-speed data link that can handle up to 4 Gb/s on a fibre optic cable. It originates from computer technology but is used in the video industry as well. The industry shows great interest in products using Fibre Channel, e.g. so that hard disks can be connected. Fibre Channel can be transmitted optically via optical fibre or electronically via copper cable.

Field
Also video field. One video field is one half-image of the interlaced scanning mode.

Also video field. One video field is one half-image of the interlaced scanning mode. A video image (frame) consists of two video fields, one containing the odd numbered lines and one the even numbered lines. See Interlaced.

FIFO API
FIFO describes the process of first in, first out. API is the abbreviation for application program interface.

FIFO describes the process of first in, first out. API is the abbreviation for application program interface. The term FIFO explains the principle of a queue:  data that comes in first, will be handled first. Then, the next data package will be handled.  Thus, the data is organized and manipulated relative to time and prioritization.

File System
When storing and organizing computer files and their accompanying metadata, a popular method to use a file system.

When storing and organizing computer files and their accompanying metadata, a popular method to use a file system. A file system might possibly have a storage device (e.g. hard disk) and then maintaining the physical location of the files is of importance. The file system will translate the file name used by the user to the physical address on the storage device. Another option is that the file system grants access to data on a file server – then acting as clients for a network protocol. File systems might be virtual, too, and then only exist as an access method for virtual data.

Finalizing
In general it means the process to finish a video sequence.

In general it means the process to finish a video sequence. On a CLIPSTER® video system it is a process that generates a new clip from the project's timeline while the original material is not touched or altered. It saves the contents of the timeline in a freely selectable file and video/audio format to a new location, thereby applying all effects and cutting away material that is not needed.

Finishing
Generally it means the complete process after fine-tuning the cutting and applying primary color corrections, such as applying secondary color corrections and titlings.

Generally it means the complete process after fine-tuning the cutting and applying primary color corrections, such as applying secondary color corrections and titlings. On a CLIPSTER® video system this can include the finalization of a project. See Finalizing.

 

Flip/Flop
An effect on the CLIPSTER video system where the video images are mirrored either horizontally (flip) or vertically (flop).

An effect on the CLIPSTER® video system where the video images are mirrored either horizontally (flip) or vertically (flop). See also Effect.

Format
Different meanings. Read more in the glossary.
  1. The size, resolution, aspect ratio, color space, bit depth, format rate, etc. for a given image.
  2. The file format for a given image.
  3. The physical medium (such as film, video, etc.) used to capture or display an image sequence.
  4. A multitude of additional variations and subcategories of the first three definitions.
Fragmentation
(Data) fragmentation occurs when a piece of data in memory is divided into several parts being physically far apart.

(Data) fragmentation occurs when a piece of data in memory is divided into several parts being physically far apart. Generally, this is the result of attempting to insert a large block of data into several small free spaces on the storage.

Frame
A frame is one full-image of the video signal.

A frame is one full-image of the video signal. It can be transmitted interlaced in two video fields or progressively. See Progressive and Interlaced.

Frame Number
When frames are recorded on a digital video system (each frame resulting in one file), they receive a numbering (usually sequential in ascending order).

When frames are recorded on a digital video system (each frame resulting in one file), they receive a numbering (usually sequential in ascending order). This frame numbering may begin at zero or have an offset, and it can be converted into timecode information easily when the frame rate is known. See also Frame, Frame rate and Timecode.

Frame Rate
The frequency per second at which frames are received or transmitted.

The frequency per second at which frames are received or transmitted. The frame rate (fps (frames per second)) is a necessary information, for example, to decode frame numbers or timecode correctly. See also Frame, Frame Number and Timecode.

Frame Repetition
Frame repetition is often used when applying slow motion effects on digital video clips.

Frame repetition is often used when applying slow motion effects on digital video clips. Then the video clip is lengthened in time (on the timeline it is made longer) and during play-out, frames are regularly repeated to receive the effect of slow motion. Frame repetition is also used during the creation of stills (see Stills).

Full
See Head and full.

See Head and full.

 

Genlock
Abbreviation for Generator Lock.

Abbreviation for Generator Lock. Describes the process of signals being synchronized. A system whereby the internal sync generator in a device (e.g. a camera) locks onto and synchronizes itself with an incoming signal.

GPI
Abbreviation for general-purpose interface.

Abbreviation for general-purpose interface. This interface is mostly used in broadcast and post production equipment. Some of these external devices do not have the ability to be directly controlled by the editor. In this case the GPI signal is used to synchronously "start" this equipment at the same time.

GUI
Graphical User Interface.

Graphical User Interface. An interactive graphic displayed on a screen, being a means of operating a software.

HD
High-definition. Sometimes used as a short form of HDTV.

High-definition. Sometimes used as a short form of HDTV.

HD-SDI
Abbreviation for 'high definition serial digital interface'.

Abbreviation for 'high definition serial digital interface'. Describes the transmission of digital video in HDTV (1920 × 1080) as well as of ancillary data (e.g. embedded audio or timecode) via BNC connectors. See also HDTV, SDI and Single link.

HDTV
Collective term for television and video formats of a resolution higher than standard TV.

Collective term for television and video formats of a resolution higher than standard TV. There are various proposals and standards. The most common formats that are standardized by SMPTE and others have 1280 x 720 pixels (SMPTE 296M) and 1920 x 1080 pixels (SMPTE 274M). In some countries they are already used for broadcasting television programs. Besides television applications the HDTV equipment is also used in production and post production of feature films. Both formats can be used with frame rates from 23.976 up to 60 frames per second. While 1920 x 1080 typically is used with interlaced scanning, in this case with a maximum frame rate of 30 fps, 1280 x 720 is always progressive but with frame rates up to 60 fps, i.e the frame rate of the 1280 x 720 format is normally twice the frame rate of the 1920 x 1080 format. With the above said, the data rates of both formats are about the same. That is why most HDTV devices support both formats. If 1920 x 1080 is used with 50 or 60 fps in progressive mode the data rate is about as twice as high.

 

Head and full
Terms for color value ranges indicating a restricted value range that provides headroom (head) and the full value range (full).

Terms for color value ranges indicating a restricted value range that provides headroom (head) and the full value range (full). A scene in post production is most likely worked upon in RGB in the full value range (8 bit: 0 = black, 255 = white). However, during broadcast the images have to be color converted to receive a 'legal' broadcast signal. Such a signal must provide a headroom in the color values to account for tolerances and a possible signal overshooting that may occur during the sampling of analog video signals. So the color values have to be converted from RGB in the full value range to YUV in the restricted value range (mostly 16 = black, 235 = white).

Head and tail
Video or audio material at the beginning (head) or end (tail) of a clip that is available on the storage of a non-linear editing system .

Video or audio material at the beginning (head) or end (tail) of a clip that is available on the storage of a non-linear editing system but not used nor visible in the timeline due to an adjustment (trimming) of the clip’s in- or outpoint. Clips that are recorded with heads and/or tails offer reserves in their content for further corrections during editing.

Hot Spare
In order to provide reliability in different system configurations, a hot spare can be installed that works as a fail-over mechanism.

In order to provide reliability in different system configurations, a hot spare can be installed that works as a fail-over mechanism. The hot spare is connected but not actively working. If one part fails, the hot spare part will take over its job.

HSDL
High-speed data link. Used to transmit and receive uncompressed 2K or 4K images.

High-speed data link. Used to transmit and receive uncompressed 2K or 4K images. It is an expansion of the dual-link HD-SDI interface offering an easy way at a production site to share such data. With HSDL the frame rate has to be reduced to 15 to 20 fps for 2K or even 5 fps for 4K images. See also Frame rate, HD-SDI, SDI, and Dual link.

I/O
Abbreviation for input/output.

Abbreviation for input/output. The I/O usually describes the process of sending or receiving data signals from different devices.

IDE/ATA
Integrated Device Electronics / Advanced Technology Attachment. IDE and ATA are used synonymously.

Integrated Device Electronics / Advanced Technology Attachment. IDE and ATA are used synonymously. Since the introduction of SATA (Serial ATA) it is sometimes called P-ATA to avoid misunderstanding. IDE is a parallel hardware interface for storage devices with point-to-point connection. The maximum data rate is 133 MB/s. As the cable length is limited to 40 cm, this interface cannot be used for interconnections where computer and hard disk are housed in different chassis. Therefore, the external connection usually is done with SCSI or Fibre Channel interfaces.

Interface
Software or hardware connecting two functions or devices.

Software or hardware connecting two functions or devices. On a program level, an interface will assist the user making selection and navigating an active system.

Interlaced
Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available: interlaced, progressive and segmented frames.

Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available: interlaced, progressive and segmented frames. When you look at an image, e.g. at your computer, you usually have all image information available right away, i.e. the image is displayed in full. However, when transmitting lots of images in a second (for film you need at least 24 images per second to make movements fluid), there are several techniques available (the scanning modes) to transmit the information. In an interlaced scan a full-image is divided into two half-images (video fields) where one contains the even numbered lines and one the odd numbered lines. Both half-images are scanned (received) separately and transmitted successively line by line from top to bottom. This is the standard scanning mode for television sets and the viewer receives about 50 half-images per second (hence 25i, meaning 25 × 2 frames resulting in 50 half-images of interlaced video per second). Because the scanning of the second half-image occurs about a 50th of a second later, the two half-images are slightly time-delayed which can be seen distinctly in an interlaced still image where rapid movement takes place in the scene: The parts of the image where the movement takes place are blurred and you can see in diagonal lines a staircase-shaped structure. However, for a play-out this is an advantage. Then movemenst in the images are perceived more fluid by the viewer. See also Progressive, Segmented frames and Stills.

Irix
Unix based operating system created by the company SGI.

Unix based operating system created by the company SGI.

Jog/shuttle
To move through a clip or sequence frame by frame with speeds different than one (1), forward or backward.

To move through a clip or sequence frame by frame with speeds different than one (1), forward or backward.

 

JPEG2000
A standard for compressing single images with high quality.

A standard for compressing single images with high quality. Abbreviation for Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000. JPEG2000 is successor of the standard format JPEG. It is the new image format that will be installed as a standard format in the film and post production business.

Key channel
Also called alpha channel. A black-and-white video signal that can be added to the existing channels of a video signal (YUV[A] or RGB[A]).

Also called alpha channel. A black-and-white video signal that can be added to the existing channels of a video signal (YUV[A] or RGB[A]). Normally used to determine parts of a video image that can be replaced by other content.

Keycode
A machine-readable code printed along the edge of the camera negative film (outside the perforations).

A machine-readable code printed along the edge of the camera negative film (outside the perforations). It provides data, for example, about the film type, the name of the manufacturer and the film stock. Additionally, a reference number for the first frame on the film is given in order to match the film with a particular position of an EDL/cut list. In transmissions of digital video keycodes can also be used to replace or supplement timecode information. See also Timecode.

LCD
Abbreviation for liquid crystal display.

Abbreviation for liquid crystal display. In this flat and thin display any number of pixels (either color or monochrome) are assembled in front of a reflector or light source.

License
Licenses are often used to make soft- and/or hardware operational for users or to provide accessory features of soft- and/or hardware.

Licenses are often used to make soft- and/or hardware operational for users or to provide accessory features of soft- and/or hardware. Many systems require the entry of license codes (license keys).

Linux
An open source Unix-type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds.

Linux® is an open source Unix-type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds. Due to the open source concept the development is done by contributions from volunteer developers from all over the world. Though the sources themeselves are free, some compilations from different providers may have a price.

Log
In the beginning of an editing process, the information about source material is entered into bins, i.e. it is logged.

In the beginning of an editing process, the information about source material is entered into bins, i.e. it is logged. Logging can either be done automatically or manually, before capturing, or while capturing material.

Loop
Playing back a section of a timeline or clip again and again.

Playing back a section of a timeline or clip again and again.

LTC
Abbreviation for longitudinal timecode.

Abbreviation for longitudinal timecode. A timecode type (defined by SMPTE) recorded on the audio track of a videotape. LTC can be easily read when the tape is moving forwards or backwards.

Luminance
The element of a video signal that contains information about its brightness.

The element of a video signal that contains information about its brightness. Together, luminance and chromaticity fully define a perceived color.  

LUT
Abbreviation for Look-up-table.

Abbreviation for Look-up-table. The LUT is used to transform data, it can e.g. map indexed-color pixels into a  set of truecolor values or it can perform gamma correction.

Mac OS
Operating system of Apple Macintosh computers.

Operating system of Apple Macintosh computers.

Media Management
Managing media means moving and storing digital content assets.

Managing media means moving and storing digital content assets in a safe way, while managing requests for duplicates.

Memory
The computer’s internal storage area.

The computer’s internal storage area. It is either data storage that comes in the form of chips or data that exists on tapes or disks. Also, the term memory is used as a shorthand for physical memory.

Metadata
Data that describes other data. Generally, structured information that describes a (possibly unstructured) set of data.

Data that describes other data. Generally, structured information that describes a (possibly unstructured) set of data. For example, a title can be a metadata item of a movie which is stored as a clip in a file. The frame rate and resolution of a clip are metadata items, too.

MPEG
Compression standards for moving images, defined by the Motion Pictures Expert Group.

Compression standards for moving images (e.g. video or desktop movie presentation), defined by the Motion Pictures Expert Group. Since it only stores the changes from one frame to another, instead of each entire frame, MPEG achieves a high compression. MPEG-1 provides a resolution of 352 X 240 at 30 fps, which is slightly below the quality of a home VHS videotape. MPEG-2 (used by DVDs) has the resolution of 720 X 480 at 60 fps, with full CD-quality audio. 

MPEG-3 is redundant. MPEG-4 is intended for other, unrelated applications and it can be used to display ATSC formats on a PC. MPEG-7 is formally called "Multimedia Content Description Interface." It does not contain the (automatic) extraction of descriptions/features nor does it specify the search engine (or any other program) that can make use of the description. MPEG-21: attempt to get a handle on the topic of content delivery. By defining a Multimedia Framework from the consumer’s point of view, it is hoped to understand how various components relate to each other and where gaps in the infrastructure might benefit from new standards.

MTBF
Mean time between failure.

Mean time between failure. A statistical value for the reliability of a device. Higher numbers mean higher reliability.

Multi-Channel
Term describes the number of channels (multiple) of audio or video.

Term describes the number of channels (multiple) of audio or video.

MXF
Abbreviation for material exchange format.

Abbreviation for material exchange format. MXF describes how program material between tapes, archives and file servers is exchanged. MXF may comprise one whole sequence but can also contain a sequence of program segments or sequence of clips.

NAS
Network Attached Storage. Data storage technology that can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients.

Network Attached Storage. Data storage technology that can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. Storage space is usually made available through regular network connections. Due to the standard interface technology it is relatively inexpensive, but does not deliver sufficient data rates for real-time HD or film transfer.

Native material
Certain video systems such as digital disk recorders or VTRs can only be configured to accept one video format a time.

Certain video systems such as digital disk recorders or VTRs can only be configured to accept one video format a time. With VTRs the dependence on a definite video format is determined by the format of the used tape. With digital disk recorders it may depend on the format of the recorder’s storage. This is then called the native material or the material native to the device.

Near-line
Intermediate type of data storage.

Intermediate type of data storage, i.e. the on-site storage of data on removable media. It is a compromise between online storage (very quick to access) and offline storage (mostly backup or long-term storage) Near-line storage provides reliable, inexpensive and unlimited data backup and archiving, but with less speed and accessability than with integrated online storage.

NLE
This term describes a form of the editing process. Here, the recording medium is not a tape, therefore, editing can be performed in a non-linear manner

This term describes a form of the editing process. Here, the recording medium is not a tape, therefore, editing can be performed in a non-linear manner, i.e. the editor is independent of the sequence of the program. NLE has the advantage of editing with quick access to source clips and record space (e.g. on computer disks). Moreover, it removes the need of winding and pre-rolling of VTR operations and hence speeds up work. Even greater speed and flexibility are possible when real-time random access to any frame (true random access) is applied. The term NLE is mostly used when discussing offline editing systems storing highly compressed images, but increasingly online non-linear systems are available as well. Nowadays quite a range of systems claim online quality with video compression. Still, prospective users have to judge the suitability of the results for their application and bear in mind that for transmission/ distribution the signals will be decompressed and re-compressed again.

No single point of failure
Describes a configuration in which at least one of each component may fail without loosing the functionality or data of the system.

Describes a configuration in which at least one of each component may fail without loosing the functionality or data of the system.

Non-linear editing
This term describes a form of the editing process.

This term describes a form of the editing process. Here, the recording medium is not a tape, therefore, editing can be performed in a non-linear manner, i.e. the editor is independent of the sequence of the program. NLE has the advantage of editing with quick access to source clips and record space (e.g. on computer disks). Moreover, it removes the need of winding and pre-rolling of VTR operations and hence speeds up work. Even greater speed and flexibility are possible when real-time random access to any frame (true random access) is applied. The term NLE is mostly used when discussing offline editing systems storing highly compressed images, but increasingly online non-linear systems are available as well. Nowadays quite a range of systems claim online quality with video compression. Still, prospective users have to judge the suitability of the results for their application and bear in mind that for transmission/ distribution the signals will be decompressed and re-compressed again.

NTFS
Abbreviation for Microsoft Windows New Technologie File System.

Abbreviation for Microsoft Windows New Technologie File System. It is a file system from Windows, used for storing and retrieving files. It allows data security on fixed and removable disks.

OEM
Abbreviation for originally equipment manufacturer.

Abbreviation for originally equipment manufacturer. The term has two different meanings: 
1) A company supplying equipment to other companies in order to resell or incorporate this equipment into another product using the reseller's brand name.
2) A company acquiring a product or component but then reusing or incorporating it into a new product with its own brand name.

Online-Conforming
With regard to CLIPSTER® an online-conforming means the process of using and referencing to clips that are already present on the video hard disk array .

With regard to CLIPSTER® an online-conforming means the process of using and referencing to clips that are already present on the video hard disk array with the help of a capture list, EDL or cut list. See also Autoconforming and Conforming.

 

OpenFX
Open-source animation and modeling program.

Open-source animation and modeling program. Popular in the post production world because of flexible effects like lens flare, fog, explosions, waves and dissolving.

Operating system
Every computer needs a base program, the so-called operating system that manages the computer and grants control of various functions.

Every computer needs a base program, the so-called operating system that manages the computer and grants control of various functions. Common examples are MS DOS and Windows® for PCs, Mac OS for Apple® Macintosh and UNIX for Linux®. On top of the operating system, specific applications are installed. General purpose operating systems allow a wide range of applications to be used, they do not necessarily allow the most efficient or fastest possible use of the hardware for the application.

 

PAL
Abbreviation for phase alternate line.

Abbreviation for phase alternate line. PAL is a television broadcast standard throughout Europe (with some exceptions like France and Eastern Europe that use SECAM). This standard contains 625 lines of resolution. In contrast, the US standard NTSC has nearly 20% less, namely of 525. 25 frames (50 fields) per second make up the final picture, while with the 625 line mode, the 50 field sequence is always linked to a 50 Hz mains frequency.

Pan and Scan
Part of the editing process.

Term describes part of editing process: aspect ratio will be changed, by simply projecting portions of the image.

Patch
Audio or video material will be routed from one channel or track in the sequence to another.

Audio or video material will be routed from one channel or track in the sequence to another.

 

PCI video board
A board equipped with the standard component peripheral component interconnect (PCI).

A board equipped with the standard component peripheral component interconnect (PCI). The component is a computer bus used for attaching external or peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. The PCI is specified to the physical size of the bus, its electrical characteristics, protocols and more.

Play back
See Play-out

See Play-out

Play list
A prepared list of video sequences that can be fed to players.

A prepared list of video sequences that can be fed to players, such as a digital disk recorder, and should be played out in the order of the list.

Play-out
The playing out of video and/or audio material from a video system, such as CLIPSTER®.

The playing out of video and/or audio material from a video system, such as CLIPSTER®.

Plug-In
Additions to software that can be installed afterwards.

Additions to software that can be installed afterwards. Plug-ins often provide special effects or features for the respective software. CLIPSTER® also provides a plug-in interface where additional effects for the CLIPSTER® Edit Tool can be installed easily. Third-parties can use this interface to program their own effects for the software.

Post house
Abbreviation for Post production House.

Abbreviation for Post production House. Mostly a company specialized in the business of cutting, color grading, finishing or conforming a clip, movie or film.

 

Post production
The stage in the preparation of a film or video program after the original footage has been shot.

The stage in the preparation of a film or video program after the original footage has been shot. Can include editing, encoding, computer program authoring, etc.

Prerender
Process of graphics, image or video material that is being rendered, but not in real-time.

Term describes the process of graphics, image or video material that is being rendered, but not in real-time. Usually the material has been rendered before on other equipment, mostly with the equivalent hardware.

Progressive
Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available: interlaced, progressive and segmented frames.

Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available: interlaced, progressive and segmented frames. When you look at an image, e.g. at your computer, you usually have all image information available right away, i.e. the image is displayed in full. However, when transmitting lots of images in a second (for film you need at least 24 images per second to make movements fluid), there are several techniques available (the scanning modes) to transmit the information. In a progressive scan the image is scanned in full and all its lines are transmitted right away line by line from top to bottom. However, to receive a play-out without any distortions (e.g. jittering) in the progressive scanning you usually have to transmit more than 25 images per second. Thus, with regard to data rate this scanning mode is disadvantageous compared to the interlaced scanning because you have to transmit more data per second. See also Interlaced and Segmented frames.

Proxy
Material rendered in a lower quality, normally unsuitable for broadcast. Mainly used for preview or offline-editing purposes.

Material rendered in a lower quality, normally unsuitable for broadcast. Mainly used for preview or offline-editing purposes. In CLIPSTER® proxies are used, for example, to provide a real-time capable environment when working with 4K video material (proxies are generated in 2K). Spycer® also makes use of proxies, for example, to create previews of video material that are distributed over a network or available on a SAN.

Pulldown
A process of conversion.

A process of conversion. Additional fields are added or pulled down, e.g. when converting material of 24fps to 30fps or other. Pulldown can take place within a transfer from telecine to tape or when downconverting HD material.

Quantization
When converting an analog signal to a digital one, the process is called quantization.

When converting an analog signal to a digital one, the process is called quantization. It measures a sample to determine a representative numerical value that is then encoded. There are three steps in analog-to-digital conversion: sampling, quantizing, and encoding. The representation of the coded values typically is done with binary numbers. Video signals are often coded using 8 or 10 bits, which allow 256 and 1024 different values respectively. Audio uses 16 or 24 bits with 65536 and 16777216 different values. For video and audio coding, increasing the bit number does not increase the maximum or minimum values but the number of steps between minimum and maximum which normally gives a better quality.

QuickTime
A QuickTime file works as a multimedia container file.

A QuickTime® file works as a multimedia container file. It contains one or more tracks, each of which stores a particular type of data, like video, audio, effects, or text (for subtitles, for example). Each track in turn contains track media. This might be either the digitally-encoded media stream (using a specific codec, e.g. JPEG, MP3, DivX, or PNG) or a data reference to the media stored in another file or elsewhere on a network. An 'edit list' indicates what parts of the media to use.

R&D
Abbreviation for Research and Development

Abbreviation for Research and Development

Raster
A pattern of image system detection.

A pattern of image system detection. It usually moves from left to right, and repeats over the image from top to bottom, counting the horizontal scan lines.

Real time
The idea or concept of a system, that will react and responds as fast as they happen.

The idea or concept of a system, that will react and responds as fast as they happen. A good example is to be seen within the games industry: moving the joystick and seeing the image on screen react simultaneously – the processes needed to achieve this effect are called “real-time”.

Record/Capture
Analog video (or audio) signals are converted into digital formats.

Analog video (or audio) signals are converted into digital formats.

Recovery
Recreation of the original stored data in a RAID storage system.

Recreation of the original stored data in a RAID storage system. For example, after a hard disk failure. The missing data is recreated from the stored parity information.

Reference genlock
Genlock describes the process of signals being synchronized.

Genlock describes the process of signals being synchronized. When combining more than one signal, one specific reference signal will help to sychncronize the different sources. 

Relay
Hardware Relay (Cent II)

Hardware Relay (Cent II)

Remote control
To start a play-out operation from another system, while recording the played out material at the same time with the foreign system.

To control a system by remote. Most of our video systems can be controlled by remote, for example, via an RS-422 interface, a common control interface in the field of video equipment. With it you can, for instance, command a Pronto Family video system to start a play-out operation from another system, while recording the played out material at the same time with the foreign system. Tape machines such as VTRs can also be controlled that way, making simultaneous play-out and record operations between different systems an easy task. See also RS-422.

Remote Diagnostics
To diagnose a system by remote.

To diagnose a system by remote, e.g. with the help diagnostics software by accessing a system via internet or network.

Resolution
In a reproduced image, a measure of the exact details can be seen or 'resolved'.

In a reproduced image, a measure of the exact details can be seen or 'resolved'. The number of the pixels in this image influences the display: high-definition is defined at approx. 2000 x 1000 pixels, SDTV at approx. 720 x 576 (PAL) or 720 x 487 (NTSC). Still, the number of pixels does not define the resolution itself, since the resolution is the result of the whole equipment interacting, i.e. the quality of the lens, the display tubes, film scanners, film processes, edit system, etc.

Restoration
Copying backup files from another storage to a hard disk.

Copying backup files from another storage to a hard disk. This will be carried out when returning data to their original condition (when having been damaged) or when copying or moving data to a new location.

RGB
The abbreviation for the Red, Green and Blue signals, the primary colors of television.

The abbreviation for the Red, Green and Blue signals, the primary colors of television. Cameras and telecines have red, blue and green receptors, the TV screen has red, green and blue phosphors illuminated by red, green and blue guns. Much of the image monitoring in a production center is in RGB. RGB is digitized with 4:4:4 sampling which occupies 50% more data than 4:2:2.

RoHS
EC directive EU/95/2002 for the 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' in electronic components.

EC directive EU/95/2002 for the 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' in electronic components.

Rotation
An effect on the CLIPSTER® video system which rotates and turns the images of a video clip.

An effect on the CLIPSTER® video system which rotates and turns the images of a video clip at a freely definable angle. See also Effect.

Routing
The activity of a device within a computer network that will decide the destination of a data package.

Term describes the activity of a device within a computer network that will decide the destination of a data package. The router is connected to more than one network, is often included as part of a network switch.

RS-422
Standard interface of the Electronic Industries Association.

Standard interface of the Electronic Industries Association. The RS-422 interface will connect different serial devices. In computer networking one device (primary/server) controls the other device (secondary/client), connected by the protocol of RS-422. 

Rushes
Footage that is shot in a day.

See dailies.

Footage that is shot in a day; called 'dailies' in the U.S.

SAN
Storage Area Network

Storage Area Network

SAS
SAS is the abbreviation for Serial Attached SCSI (Small Computer System Interface).

SAS is the abbreviation for Serial Attached SCSI (Small Computer System Interface). SAS is a market replacement for parallel SCSI. It is a serial interface, that has the same electrical specifications as SATA, but uses SCSI protocol and two SATA links for a data rate of 300 MB/s

SATA
Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment). A further development of ATA, also known as IDE.

Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment). A further development of ATA, also known as IDE.

SATA is the successor of ATA, but it is a serial interface, resulting in easier cabling and fewer errors. The maximum data rate is 150 MB/s for SATA and 300 MB/s for SATA-2, a newer version of SATA.

 

SATA-2
Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment). A further development of ATA, also known as IDE.

Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment). A further development of ATA, also known as IDE.

SATA is the successor of ATA, but it is a serial interface, resulting in easier cabling and fewer errors. The maximum data rate is 150 MB/s for SATA and 300 MB/s for SATA-2, a newer version of SATA.

Scaler Control
To control a scaling (by remote). See Scaling.

To control a scaling (by remote). See Scaling.

Scaling
Scaling generally indicates a change of the resolution of images, i.e. the images are made larger or smaller.

Scaling generally indicates a change of the resolution of images, i.e. the images are made larger or smaller. Autoscaling is a setting of the CLIPSTER® video system that enables an automatic scaling and resizing of the original video material. If the resolution of the original material differs from the configured raster, it will be scaled either up or down to its maximum allowable width and/or height according to the selected video format. The autoscaling setting makes sure that no image information gets lost, i.e. the images will not be cropped nor will they be to small for the selected video format. See also Video format.

Scrub bar
A scrub bar is a software item that represents a timeline of video material.

A scrub bar is a software item that represents a timeline of video material. It provides a slider/cursor that can be used to move through the images of the material, i.e. with it you 'scrub' the bar. See also Timeline.

SCSI
Abbreviation for Small Computer System Interface.

Abbreviation for Small Computer System Interface. It is a parallel interface with up to 16 bit. A connection of up to 15 drives to one interface port are possible thanks to the BUS architecture. The maximum data rate is 320 MB/s.

SD
Standard-definition.

Standard-definition.

SDI
SDI is the abbreviation for Serial Digital interface.

SDI is the abbreviation for Serial Digital interface. It is based on a 270 MB/s transfer rate. The interface is based on 10 bit, scrambled and is polarity independent. Common scrambling for ITU-R 601, composite digital video and four channels of (embedded) digital audio are possible. The SDI interfaced is included in most newer broadcast equipment (digital), in that installation is simplified as well as signal distribution. SDI uses standard 75 ohm BNC connector and coax cable, since this mostly is used for analog video and the signal’s transmitting range hits up to 60 feet (200 meters).

SDK
Software Development Kit

Software Development Kit

SDStationOEM II
SDStationOEM II was an OEM board and a solution for uncompressed SDTV video and AES/EBU audio I/O.

SDStationOEM II was an OEM board and a solution for uncompressed SDTV video and AES/EBU audio I/O. It enables solution providers to build their own customized A/V systems: for editing, compositing, CG or virtual sets. As a half-length PCI board, the SDStationOEM II is the most flexible solution on the market, taking full advantage of the PCI 64-bit bus. The SDStationOEM II provides rock-solid performance with a proven SDK design enabling customers to create the innovative systems the market requires.

SDTV
SDTV is the abbreviation for Standard Definition Television and refers to television formats as standardized in ITU-R 601 and SMPTE170.

SDTV is the abbreviation for Standard Definition Television and refers to television formats as standardized in ITU-R 601 and SMPTE170.

Segmented Frames
Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available.

Scanning mode for video images. There are three scanning modes available: interlaced, progressive and segmented frames. When you look at an image, e.g. at your computer, you usually have all image information available right away, i.e. the image is displayed in full. However, when transmitting lots of images in a second (for film you need at least 24 images per second to make movements fluid), there are several techniques available (the scanning modes) to transmit the information. In a segmented frames scan the image is scanned (received) progressively. Then its lines are divided into two half-images and both are sent successively line by line from top to bottom. Compared to the interlaced scanning the half-images are not time-delayed with this scanning mode because they were scanned progressively at a single point of time. The segmented frames scanning mode is mainly used for compatible storing of progressive video material on systems that operate interlaced. It can also be used to display progressively scanned images on interlaced based monitors. See also Interlaced and Progressive.

serial digital interface
SDI is the abbreviation for Serial Digital interface. It is based on a 270 MB/s transfer rate.

SDI is the abbreviation for Serial Digital interface. It is based on a 270 MB/s transfer rate. The interface is based on 10 bit, scrambled and is polarity independent. Common scrambling for ITU-R 601, composite digital video and four channels of (embedded) digital audio are possible. The SDI interfaced is included in most newer broadcast equipment (digital), in that installation is simplified as well as signal distribution. SDI uses standard 75 ohm BNC connector and coax cable, since this mostly is used for analog video and the signal’s transmitting range hits up to 60 feet (200 meters).

Server
When a computer provides services to other computing systems (clients) over a network, it is defined as a server.

When a computer provides services to other computing systems (clients) over a network, it is defined as a server. Most complex computer systems today require a server, but the term can also refer to the software or hardware elements of such a system.

Shortcut
Accessing predefined function with only a few keystrokes.

1. Computer shortcuts are small files containing the location of other files. Computer shortcuts are usually located on the desktop to start programs without using a command line.

2. Keyboard shortcut describes a key or set of keys to perform a predefined function. Sequences such as using a menu or typing commands can be reduced to a few keystrokes.

Shuttle (functionality)

1. Viewing footage at speeds greater than real time.

2. A removable drive unit for easy transport of data and media files from one system to another without connecting and disconnecting cables.

Single link
SDTV and HDTV in YUV 4:2:2 can be transmitted via HD-SDI and thus via a single BNC connector.

SDTV and HDTV in YUV 4:2:2 can be transmitted via HD-SDI and thus via a single BNC connector. This is called a single-link connection in contrast to a dual-link connection. See also HD-SDI and Dual link.

SLOW-PAL
Utilizes the proximity of 25 Hz to 24 Hz common in film applications. It is the PAL video format in 24 frames per second (interlaced).

Utilizes the proximity of 25 Hz to 24 Hz common in film applications. It is the PAL video format in 24 frames per second (interlaced). Another application of Slow-PAL can be found when converting video sequences from PAL (25 fps) to NTSC (29.97 fps). In contrast to a direct conversion where an interpolation of video fields is required resulting in a slight loss of image quality, with Slow-PAL the conversion will leave the images untouched. However, the final result will be about 4% slower. By converting to Slow-PAL the frame rate is reduced to 24 frames per second which can then easily be converted to the near 30 frames per second of NTSC by simply doubling video fields.

SMPTE
Abbreviation for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.

Abbreviation for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. SMPTE is an international professional association of engineers working in the motion imaging industries. The standards developed by SMPTE are internationally renowned. SMPTE has specified over 400 standards, practices and guidelines for television, motion pictures, digital cinema, audio and medical imaging.

SMTP
Abbreviation for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol which is a TCP/IP protocol.

Abbreviation for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol which is a TCP/IP protocol. In sending and receiving e-mail it is usually used with POP3 or IMAP protocols to generate a user-friendly e-mailing process. SMTP is typically used by programs for sending e-mail while either POP3 or IMAP support programs for receiving e-mail.

Source timecode
Timecode information that is stored directly in the video clip or the individual frames of an image sequence (stored in the file headers). See also Timecode.

Timecode information that is stored directly in the video clip or the individual frames of an image sequence (stored in the file headers). See also Timecode.

Split-screen
An effect that displays two images separated by a horizontal or vertical wipe line.

An effect that displays two images separated by a horizontal or vertical wipe line.

Spycer®
Our innovative content control software. It has been integrated in all our turnkey solutions.

Spycer® is our innovative content control software that has been integrated in all our turnkey solutions. It provides a solution for dealing with large amounts of video data and its accompanying metadata. Spycer® provides editors, colorists and directors with a wide range of browsing, search and management tools.

Spycer® offers more transparency in DI workflows since it assists by managing, searching and viewing content and metadata and also by browsing directories within the context of the current project. Fast data retrieval and high-speed copying are other key features of this application.

 

Stand-alone
Stand-alone describes programs which run without the services of other programs.

Stand-alone describes programs which run without the services of other programs (except maybe firmware).

 

Stereo
Stereophonic sound.

Stereophonic sound. Two independent audio channels are used to create a spatial sound effect.

Stills
Short for still images, i.e. the output when a play-out of video is paused.

Short for still images, i.e. the output when a play-out of video is paused. When a play-out is stopped on a digital video system such as CLIPSTER®, the last image will be continuously repeated at its video outputs. With video material in a progressive video format this results in an acceptable output. However, when interlaced video is used and the currently displayed image contains rapid movement, a simple frame repetition (the repetition of two video fields) is not acceptable because the image output will jitter. More favorable then is the repetition of a single video field. Both features are supported on our video systems. See also Interlaced and Frame repetition.

Stripe set
A stripe set is a storage that consists of multiple hard drives.

A stripe set is a storage that consists of multiple hard drives. The total capacity is the sum of the individual drives. The performance in general is higher than the performance of a single hard drive. A stripe set has no redundancy and is the same as a RAID 0 configuration.

Sustained Data Rate
Sustained data rates are the average of data rates measured over a longer period.

Sustained data rates are the average of data rates measured over a longer period. The best way to measure data rate of a storage is to run the same application being intended to be used with the storage.

Synchronization (sync)
Transmission procedure by which the bit and character streams are controlled by accurately synchronized clocks.

Transmission procedure by which the bit and character streams are controlled by accurately synchronized clocks, both at the receiving and sending end.

Tail
See Head and tail.

See Head and tail.

Telecine
A telecine can rapidly convert motion picture into a digital video format.

A telecine can rapidly convert motion picture into a digital video format. Newer devices will be able to produce it in HDTV resolution. The telecine is faster than a film scanner, but the quality might not be the same.

TGA
Abbreviation for 'Targa', i.e. the Targa image format.

Abbreviation for 'Targa', i.e. the Targa image format. An 8-bit image file format in RGB with or without key that can be used for video clips. See also Key channel and Video clip.

Third-party
Soft- or hardware developed by other manufacturers.

Soft- or hardware developed by other manufacturers.

Thumbnail
A down-converted image to provide a preview of its original material.

A down-converted image to provide a preview of its original material. Thumbnails are used in the CLIPSTER® and Pronto Family software to show the contents of video clips in still images. Thus a complete loading and play-out of the clip only to take a look at its contents is not necessary.

TIFF
Abbreviation for 'Tagged Image File Format'

Abbreviation for 'Tagged Image File Format'. 8- or 16-bit image file format in RGB with or without key that can be used for video clips. Highly flexible and platform-independent. See also Key channel and Video clip.

Time-lapse recording
With a time-lapse recording frames are captured at a certain interval only, leaving out a number of frames in-between.

With a time-lapse recording frames are captured at a certain interval only, leaving out a number of frames in-between. This will result in a fast-motion clip of the video received in real time. The interval at which frames should be recorded can be freely set on our video systems.

Timecode
Timed information for digital video images, usually the time in which one frame is sent or recorded.

Timed information for digital video images, usually the time in which one frame is sent or recorded. Its format is <hours>:<minutes>:<seconds>:<frames> (hh:mm:ss:ff). The numbering of the frames (<frames>) depends on the frame rate. Timecode information are necessary for a frame accurate editing of video material. When transmitted digitally, it can also comprise the user bits containing further information (e.g. details about the scene or the reel number). See also Frame, Frame Number, Frame Rate, and Source timecode.

Timeline
The graphical representation of a video clip, e.g. in software.

The graphical representation of a video clip, e.g. in software. Video clips can be displayed as a timeline where the frame sequence and thus the individual frames are represented by certain positions on a line (mostly a horizontal line, in CLIPSTER® usually a scrub bar). A timeline may also indicate the representation of a sequence of clips (play list). For example, in the CLIPSTER® and Pronto Family Edit Tool you can add clips in the desired sequence on a video track (timeline) as they should be played out in the end. See also Scrub bar and Play list.

Track
Timelines where clips can be arranged often consist of tracks for video and/or audio.

Timelines where clips can be arranged often consist of tracks for video and/or audio. When the timeline is displayed horizontally, the tracks would appear vertically, and vice versa. Each track can contain different material so that they can be edited and output more flexible.

Trackball
A device like a computer mouse used to detect a user’s input.

A device like a computer mouse used to detect a user’s input. The ball can be rotated inside a socket with the hand and two or more sensors (on x- and y-axis) detect the amount of movement. A trackball can be used, for example, to move a mouse pointer on a computer screen. In the field of digital video trackballs are often used for devices such as color correction panels (to determine the amount of color shifting).

 

Transition
A change from one clip to the next.

A change from one clip to the next. A popular example is a cut, when the first frame of the starting video segment directly follows the last frame of the segment that is ending. Other transitions are dissolves, wipes, fades, or DVEs.

Trim
The adjusting of transitions in a sequence.

The adjusting of transitions in a sequence.

Turnkey
pre-built system "packages" for immediate use.

Used in the technology industry, most commonly to describe pre-built system "packages" for immediate use. Everything required to process a certain type of task (e.g. audio editing) is included. Turnkey systems often contain pre-installed software, various types of hardware, and accessories.

Uncompressed
The act of expanding a compression file back into its original form.

Uncompressing (or decompressing) is the act of expanding a compression file back into its original form. Software often comes in a compressed package, e.g. as internet download. It often uncompresses itself when you click on it. Files can be uncompressed using popular tools such as PKZIP in the DOS operating system, WinZip in Windows, and MacZip in Macintosh.

VANC
Vertical ancillary data

Vertical ancillary data

Versioning
Version control, revision control.

Version control, revision control. The management of different versions of a set of data. In digital video it can stand for a comparison of multiple revisions of an image/clip sequence (e.g. in different tracks).

Video clip
In a non-linear editing environment a clip indicates data of either video or audio that has been clipped out (copied) from a larger environment such as a reel or a video tape.

In a non-linear editing environment a clip indicates data of either video or audio that has been clipped out (copied) from a larger environment such as a reel or a video tape. So in essence a video clip is a snippet of video. On our video systems video clips usually are folders/directories that contain a great number of individual images files (the frames) which combined form the video sequence. The image files can be stored in a wide variety of picture file formats (e.g. BMP or TIFF). However, video clips can also be stored in a single file in a container file format such as QuickTime® or Windows® Media which can also be handled by the CLIPSTER® software.

 

Video format
Determines the way video is transmitted or received. For example, for a record it determines how to receive a video signal at the inputs.

Determines the way video is transmitted or received. For example, for a record it determines how to receive a video signal at the inputs. Most notably the setting of a video format must detail the video raster (resolution, e.g. 1920 × 1080), its frame rate (frequency, e.g. 30 Hz/fps), the scanning mode (either progressive, interlaced or segmented frames), the color mode (e.g. YUV or RGB), and the bit depth (e.g. 8 bit). It may also require further details, for instance, about the color space (e.g. head/full) or additional sync settings.

VITC
Abbreviation for Vertical Interval Timecode.

VITC

See also LTC. Abbreviation for Vertical Interval Timecode. The timecode is stored in the video’s vertical interval signal. Professional videotape machines can read VITC in either the play or the jog (manual) mode, making it ideal for editing.

Volume
An identifiable unit of data storage in computers or storage systems.

An identifiable unit of data storage in computers or storage systems. It might be physically removable. In tape storage systems, a volume may be a tape cartridge (or, in older systems, a tape reel). In mainframe storage systems, a volume may be a removable hard disk. Each volume can be specified by the user via its system-unique name or number. In some systems, the physical unit may be divided into several separately identifiable volumes.

VTR
Video Tape Recorder.

Video Tape Recorder.

Watchdog
A soft- or hardware instance that determines what should be sent out in case of failure.

A soft- or hardware instance that determines what should be sent out in case of failure. For example, if dropped frames are detected, the watchdog will react and output certain images instead. The watchdog output can be configured, for example, to a color bar image, a black frame or the last played out image.

WAV
Abbreviation for 'wave', i.e. the Wave file format.

Abbreviation for "wave', i.e. the Wave file format. File format for digital audio (waveform) data under Windows that can be used for audio clips. Capable of storing multiple mono or stereo channels. CLIPSTER® also supports the Broadcast Wave format. See also Audio clip.

Windows
Operating system for IBM compatible PCs developed by the company Microsoft.

Operating system for IBM compatible PCs developed by the company Microsoft.

Wipe
A shaped transition between video sources.

Also see Transition.

A shaped transition between video sources. A margin or border moves across the screen, wiping out the image of one scene and replacing it with an image of the next scene.

WMV
Microsoft developed a set of video codec technologies called Windows® Media Video (WMV).

Microsoft developed a set of video codec technologies called Windows® Media Video (WMV). WMV is part of the Windows® Media framework.

Wordclock
A clock signal used to synchronize other devices.

A word clock or wordclock (sometimes sample clock) is a clock signal (not the actual device) used to synchronize other devices, such as digital audio tape machines and players. Wordclock is used entirely to keep a perfectly-timed and constant bitrate to avoid data errors. The devices are interconnected via digtial audio. A wordclock is used by several formats, such as S/P-DIF, AES/EBU, ADAT and other formats use a wordclock, too. Various audio over Ethernet protocols use broadcast packets for the wordclock. On a network the wordclock is controlled by a master clock.

Workflow
Workflow is the operational aspect of a work procedure.

Workflow is the operational aspect of a work procedure. It describes how tasks are structured, who performs them, what their relative order is, how they are synchronized, how information flows to support the tasks and how tasks are being tracked. As dimension of time workflow considers "throughput" as a distinct measure.

Workstation
A high-end, specialized computer system.

A high-end, specialized computer system, intended for use by engineers or imaging professionals.

XLR
A secure connector often found on high quality audio and video equipment.

A secure connector often found on high quality audio and video equipment. It is a type of audio connector featuring three leads: two for the signal and one for overall system grounding. XLR is often used for microphones.

YUV
YUV is the abbreviation for the differential brightness and color signals.

YUV is the abbreviation for the differential brightness and color signals. It is the color space used by NTSC and PAL video systems. While the Y’ is the luma component, the U and V are the color difference components. Some may mistake the Y’UV notation for Y’CbCr data. Most use the YUV notation rather than Y’UV or Y’U’V’. Technically correct is Y’U’V’ since all three components are derived from RGB’. YUV is also the name for some component analog interfaces of consumer equipment.

 

Zoom and Pan
Increases the length of the camera lens, magnifying an aspect of a scene.

Zoom: Increases the length of the camera lens, magnifying an aspect of a scene. The results of a zoom and a dolly are different. A dolly physically moves the camera closer to the point of interest without changing the length of the lens. Zoom increases the size of the point of interest by increasing the lens length.

Pan: Adjusting the focal point by pivoting the camera direction, usually slowly across a scene.